References: Multiple Topics Related to Progesteron / Progesterone

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References for: Women and Heart Disease, Hermsmeyer Interview, Ovarian Cancer, Topical Progesterone, Blood and Saliva Testing, Breast Cancer and Progesterone (Part I), Breast Cancer and Progesterone (Part II), Zava Interview on the Dark Side of Soy

References for Women and Heart Disease

Altura BM, Altura BT, "Magnesium and cardiovascular biology: An important link between cardiovascular risk factors and atherogenesis," Cell Mol Biol Res 1995; 41(5):347- 59.

The American Heart Association, "Cardiovascular Disease in Women: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association, and "Women, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics,"

Cerqueira MD, "Diagnostic testing strategies for coronary artery disease: special issues related to gender," Am J Cardiol 1995;75:52D-60D.

Douglas PS, et al, "The evaluation of chest pain in women," N Engl J Med 1996;344:1311-1315.

Fried LP, Kronmal RA, Newman AB, Bild DE, et al, "Risk factors for 5-year mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study," JAMA 1998;279:585-592.

Gatto L, et al, "Ascorbic acid induces a favourable lipoprotein profile in women," J Am Coll Nutr 1996; 15(2): 154-58.

Kannel WB, "Natural history of angina pectoris in the Framingham Study: prognosis and survival. Am J Cardiol 1972;29:154-163.

Kung S, et al, "Are there gender differences regarding coronary artery calcification?" Am J Cardiac Imag 1996;10:72-77.

La Croix AZ, et al, "Health aging. A women's issue," West J Med 1997; 167(4):220-32.

Lauer MS, et al, "Sex and Diagnostic Evaluation of Possible Coronary Artery Disease After Exercise Treadmill Testing at One Academic Teaching Center," Am Heart J 1997;134(5):807-813.

Matthews, K, et al, "Prior to use of estrogen replacement therapy, are users healthier than non-users?" Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143(10):971-8.

Rosano GMC, Sarrel PM, Poole-Wilson PA, Collins P, "Beneficial effect of oestrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in women with coronary artery disease," Lancet 1993; 342:133-136.

Sidney S, et al, "Myocardial Infarction and the Use of Estrogen and Estrogen-Progestogen in Postmenopausal Women," Ann Int Med 1997; 127:501-508.

Stephens N, Parsons A, et al, "Randomised controlled trial of Vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS)," Lancet 1996; 347:781- 86.

Verhoef P, Stampfer M, et al, "Homocysteine metabolism and risk of myocardial infarction: Relation with Vitamins B6, B12 and folate," Am J Epidemiol 1996;143;845-59.

References for Hermsmeyer Interview

3rd International Symposium, Women's Health and Menopause, Florence, Italy, June 13-16, 1998, Fondazione Giovanni Lorenzini Medical Science Foundation, Via Appiani, 7, 20121 Milan, Italy.

Hermsmeyer K, Miyagawa K, Kelley ST, Rosch J, Hall AS, Axthelm MK, and Greenberg B, "Reactivity based coronary vasospasm independent of atherosclerosis in rhesus monkeys," J Am Col Cardiol, 29:671-680, 1997.

Miyagawa K, Rosch J, Stanczyk F, Hermsmeyer K, "Medroxyprogesterone interferes with ovarian steroid protection against coronary vasospasm, Nature Medicine, 3:324-327, 1997.

Miyagawa K, Vidgoff J, Hermsmeyer K, "Ca2+ release mechanism of primate reactivity based coronary vasospasm," Am J Physiol, 272:H2645-H2654, 1997.

Minshall RD, et al "Ovarian steroid protection against coronary artery hyperreactivity in rhesus monkeys," J Clin Endoc Metabol, 83:649-659, 1998.

Minshall RD, Miyagawa K, Chadwick CC, Novy MJ, Hermsmeyer K, "In vitro modulation of primate coronary vascular muscle cell reactivity by ovarian steroid hormones," FASEB J, in press, August 1998.

References for Ovarian Cancer

Rodriques C, Calle EE, Loates RJ, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy and fatal ovarian cancer. American J Eidemiology 141: 828-834, 1995.

Cavalieri EL, Stack DE, Devanesan PD, et al. Molecular origin of cancer: Catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones as endogenous tumor initiators. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94:10937-10942, 1997.

References on Topical Progesterone, Blood and Saliva Testing

Dollbaum CM, Duwe GF. Absorption of progesterone after topical applications: serum and saliva levels. Presented at the 7th Annual Meeting of the American Menopause Society.

Johnson ME, et al. Permeation of steroids through human skin. J Pharmaceutical Sci 84: 1144-1146, 1995.

Devenuto F, et al. Human erythrocyte membrane. Uptake of progesterone and chemical alterations. Biochim Biophys Acta 193: 36-47, 1969.

Koefoed P, Brahm J. The permeability of the human red cell membrane to steroid sex hormones. Biochim Biophys Acta 1195: 55-62, 1994.

Chang K-J, Lee TTY, et al. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertility and Sterility 63: 785-791, 1995.

Breast Cancer and Progesterone (Part I)

(For those who wish to acquire an overview of the apoptosis matter that will be covered in the next issue, I recommend reading the article "To Die or Not to Die" in the January 28, 1998, issue of the JAMA.) (References are listed in order of mention in article.)

Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, Jones GS. Breast cancer incidence in women with a history of progesterone deficiency. Am J Epidemiology 1981;114:209-217.

Zava, David, Personal communication, as yet unpublished. Details coming in future issues.

Hrushesky WJM. Breast cancer, timing of surgery, and the menstrual cycle: Call for prospective trial. J Women's Health 1996;5:555-566. Mohr PE, Wang DY, Gregory WM, Richards MA, Fentiman IS. Serum progesterone and prognosis in operable breast cancer. British J Cancer 1996;73:1552-1555.

Chang K-J, Lee TTY, Linares-Cruz G, Fournier S, de Lignieres B. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertility and Sterility 1995;63:785-791.

References for Progesterone and Breast Cancer (Part II)

Cavalieri EL, Stack DE, Devanesan PD, Todorovic R, et al., Molecular origin of cancer: Catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones as endogenous tumor initiators. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1997;94:10937-10942.

Chang K-J, Lee TTY, Linares-Cruz G, Fournier S, de Lignieres B. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertility and Sterility 1995;63:785-791.

Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, Jones GS. Breast cancer incidence in women with a history of progesterone deficiency. Am J Epidemiology 1981;114:209-217.

Darcy KM, Shoemaker SF, Lee PH, Ganis BA, and Margot M. Hydrocortisone and progesterone regulation of the proliferation, morphogenesis, and functional differentiation of normal rat mammary epithelial cells in three dimensional primary culture. J Cellular Physiology 1995;163:365-379.

Formby B and Wiley TS. Progesterone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells: Inverse effect on expression of p53 and Bcl-2. Sansum Medical Research Foundation, Santa Barbara, CA. Awaiting publication.

Gompel A, Malet C, Spritzer P, La Lardrie J-P, et al. Progestin effect on cell proliferation and 17*-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in normal human breast cells in culture. J Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1986;63:1174.

Gompel A, Sabourin JC, Martin A, Yaneva H, et al. Bcl-2 expression in normal endometrium during the menstrual cycle. Am J Pathology 1994;144:1196-1202.

Hrushesky WJM. Breast cancer, timing of surgery, and the menstrual cycle: Call for prospective trial. J Women's Health 1996;5:555-566.

Inoh A, Kamiya K, Fujii Y, and Yokoro K. Protective effects of progesterone and tamoxifen in estrogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized W/Fu rats. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985; 76:699-704.

Kandouz M, Siromachkova M, Jacob D, Marquet BC, et al. Antagonism between estradiol and progestin on Bcl-2 expression in breast cancer cells. Int. J. Cancer 1996;68:120-125.

Leis HP. Endocrine prophylaxis of breast cancer with cyclic estrogen and progesterone. Inern Surg 1966;45:496-503.

Mohr PE, Wang DY, Gregory WM, Richards MA, Fentiman IS. Serum progesterone and prognosis in operable breast cancer. British J Cancer 1996;73:1552-1555.

Pujol P, Hilsenbeck SG, Chamness GC, and Elledge RM. Rising levels of estrogen receptor in breast cancer over 2 decades. Cancer 1994;74:1601-1606.

Rodriquez C, Calle EE, Coates RJ, Miracle-McMahill HL, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy and fatal ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiology 1995;141:828-835.

Sabourin JC, Martin A, Baruch J, Truc JB, et al. Bcl-2 expression in normal breast tissue during the menstrual cycle. Int. J. Cancer 1994;59:1-6.

Shi-Zhong Bu, De-Ling Yin, Xiu-Hai Ren, Li-Zhen Jiang, et al. Progesterone induces apoptosis and up-regulation of p53 expression in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Am Cancer Society 1997: pp 1944-1950.

Weinberg RA. How cancer arises. Scientific American, September 1996;pgs 62-70.

References for Zava Interview on the Dark Side of Soy

(These references appear in the approximate order they were referred to in the interview.)

Liener IE, Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 34: 31-67, 1994.

Businco L, et al. Allergenicity and nutritional adequacy of soy protein formulas. J Pediatr 121: S21-S28, 1992.

Wilgus HS Jr. et al. Goitrogenicity of soybeans. J Nutr 22: 43-52, 1941.

Fallon SW, Enig MG. Soy products for dairy products? Not so fast.. Health Freedom News, September, 1995.

Ferguson EL, et al. Dietary calcium, phytate, and zinc intakes and the calcium, phytate, and zinc molar ratios of the diets of a selected group of East African children. Am J Clin Nutr 50(6):1450-1456, 1989.

Sandberg AS. The effect of food processing on phytate hydrolysis and availability of iron and zinc. Adv Exp Med Biol 289:499-508, 1991.

Davies NT, et al. An evaluation of the phytate, zinc, copper, iron and manganese contents of, and zn availability from, soya-based textured-vegetable-protein meat-substitutes or meat-extenders. Br J Nutr 41(3):579-589, 1979.

Ferguson EL, et al. The zinc nutriture of preschool children living in two African countries. J Nutr 123:1487-1496, 1993.

Sandstrom B, et al. Absorption of zinc from soy protein meals in humans. J Nutr 117:321-327, 1987.

Zava DT, Duwe G. Estrogenic and antiproliferative properties of genistein and other flavonoids in human breast cancer cells in vitro. Nutrition and Cancer 27: 31-40, 1997.

Anderson RL, et al. Compositional changes in trypsin ihibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones related to soybean processing. J Nutr 125: 581S-588S, 1995.

Burke GL. The potential use of a dietary soy supplement as a post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy. Second International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Brussells, Belgium, Oral Abstract, 1996.

Fotsis T. Genistein, a dietary-derived inhibitor or in vitro angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 90: 2690-2694, 1993.

Vera JC, et al. Genistein is a natural inhibitor of hexose and dehydroascorbic acid transport through the glucose transporter, GLUT1. J Biol Chem 271: 8719-8724, 1996.

Petrakis NL et al. Stimulatory influence of soy protein isolate on breast secretion in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5: 785-794, 1996.

Santell RC, et al. Dietary genistein exerts estrogenic effects upon the uterus, mammary gland and the hypothalamic/pituitary axis in rats. J Nutr 1997 Feb;127(2):263-269.

Wang, C, et al. "Lignans and Isoflavonoids Inhibit Aromatase Enzyme in Human Preadipocytes." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 50, 205-212, 1994.

Makela, S, et al. Estrogen-specific 17 -hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductase Type I as a Possible Target for the Action of Phytoestrogens. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 208, 51-59, 1995.

Hoffmann R, et al. Interleukin-1beta-induced inhibition of hair growth in vitro is mediated by cyclic AMP. J Invest Dermatol 1997 Jan;108(1):40-42. DTZ: shows genistein inhibits hair growth by 60%.

Kruse FE, et al. Inhibition of neovascularization of the eye by dietary factors exemplified by isoflavonoids. Ophthalmologe 1997 Feb;94(2):152-156.

Ikeda Y, et al. GABAA receptor stimulation promotes survival of embryonic rat striatal neurons in culture. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 1997 Feb 20;98(2):253-258.

Wan Q, et al. Modulation of GABAA receptor function by tyrosine phosphorylation of beta subunits. J Neurosci 1997 Jul 1;17(13):5062-5069.

References for: Bone Density/Osteoporosis, Tamoxifen Studies, Estrogen Supplementation, The Prostate and Hormones, Zava Interview on Teens and Hormones, and Fluoride

Bone Density/Osteoporosis

Christiansen, C, Riis BJ, Nilas L, Rodbro P, "Uncoupling of bone formation and resorption by combined oestrogen and progestagen therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis," Lancet 12 October 1985:800-801.

Cummings SR, Mevitt MC, Browner WS et al for the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group, "Risk Factors for Hip Fracture in White Women," N Engl J Med 1995;332:767-73.

Dargent-Molina P, Favier F, Grandjean H, Baudoin C, Schott AM, Hausherr E, Meunier PJ, Br art G, for the EPIDOS Group, "Fall-related factors and risk of hip fracture: the EPIDOS prospective study," Lancet 1996; 348: 145-49.

Dempster DW, Lindsay R, "Pathogenesis of osteoporosis," Lancet 1993; 341:797-801.

Hoskins D, Chilvers CED, et al, "Prevention of bone loss with alendronate iin postmenopausal women under 60 years of age," NEJM 1998; 338:485-492.

Ojasoo T, "Affiliations among steroid receptors as revealed by multivariate analysis of steroid binding data," J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 1994; 48:31-46.

Prior JC, "Progesterone as a Bone-Trophic Hormone," Endocrine Reviews 1990; 11:386-398.

Tamoxifen Studies

The Lancet 11 July 1998; 352: 80-81, 93-97, 98-101, Editorial by Kathleen I. Pritchard, U. of Toronto, Ontario.

Powles T, Eeles R, Ashley S, Easton D, et al, "Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomized chemoprevention trial," Lancet 1998; 352: 98-101.

Veronesi U, Maisonneuve P, Costa A, Sacchini V, et al, "Prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen: preliminary findings from the Italian randomized trial among hysterectomized women," Lancet 1998;352:93-97.

Estrogen Supplementation

Cummings SR, et al, "Endogenous hormones and the risk of hip and vertebral fractures among older women," NEJM, 10 Sept 1998; 339: 733-738.

Hulley S, et al, "Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women," JAMA, 19 August 1998; 280: 605-613.

Prior JC, "Perimenopause: the complex endocrinology of the menopausal transition," Endocrine Reviews 1998; 19(4):397-426.

The Prostate and Hormones

Umekita, Yoshihisa et al, "Human prostate tumor growth in athymic mice: inhibition by androgens and stimulation by finasteride," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Vol. 93, Issue 21, 11802-11807, October 15, 1996.

Bruchovsky, N, "The metabolism of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in an androgen-dependent tumour. A possible correlation between dihydrotestosterone and tumour growth in vivo," Biochem J, 1972 Apr;127(3):561-75.

Russell, Pamela, et al, "Growth factor involvement in progression of prostate cancer," Clinical Chemistry, 1998;44:705-723.

Veldscholte J, "Unusual specificity of the androgen receptor in the human prostate tumor cell line LNCaP: high affinity for progestagenic and estrogenic steroids," Biochem Biophys Acta 1990 Apr 9;1052(1):187-94.

Zava Interview on Teens and Hormones

Brinton LA, et al, "Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among younger women," J Natl Cancer Inst 1995 Jun 7;87(11):827-835.

Herman-Giddens ME, et al, "Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practiceSigma" Pediatrics 99: 505-512, 1997.

Li CI, Malone KE, et al "Age when maximum height is reached as a risk factor for breast cancer among young U.S. women," Epidemiology 8: 559-565, 1997.

Paul C, Skegg DC, Spears GF, "Depot medroxyprogesterone (DepoProvera) and risk of breast cancer," BMJ 1989 Sep 23;299(6702):759-762.

Rookus MA, van Leeuwen FE, "Oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer in women aged 2054 years," Netherlands Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer Study Group. Lancet 1994 Sep 24;344(8926):844-851.

Olsson H, Borg A, et al, "A biological marker, strongly associated with early oral contraceptive use, for the selection of a high risk group for premenopausal breast cancer," Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 1986;3(2):77-81.

Olsson H, et al, "Permanent alterations induced in plasma prolactin and estrogen receptor concentration in benign and malignant tissue of women who started oral contraceptive use at an early age," Anticancer Res 1987 Jul;7(4B):853-856.

Olsson H, "Oral contraceptive use and premenopausal breast cancer--a review of studies performed in southern Sweden," Cancer Detect Prev 1991;15(4):265271.


Foch CB. The costs, effects, and benefits of preventive dental care: a literature review. Rand Publication N-1732-RWJF, Dec 1981.

Information from Robert Carton, PhD, previously of the Environmental Protection Agency.

Mullenix PJ, Denbesten PK, Schunior A, Kernan WJ. Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 1995; 17: 169-177.

Gray AS. Fluoridation: time for a new baseline? J Canadian Dental Assoc., 1987; 53: 763-5.

Colquhoun J. Fluoridation in New Zealand: new evidence. American Laboratory, 1985; 17(5): 66-72 and 17(6): 98-102.